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Pharmacology Of Hypertension Drugs

Written By SALWA store on Saturday, May 19, 2012 | 7:51 AM


Drugs commonly used include the class of diuretics, beta blockers, calcium channel blockers, ACE inhibitors, angiotensin II receptor blockers, alpha blockers, adrenergic inhibitors and vasodilators

Use of ACE inhibitor therapy is a safe and conventional therapy. Although the drug is effective and used as the primary option, but these drugs often cause side effects cough is very annoying. This led to the selection of drugs known as angiotensin II receptor blocker as an alternative therapy.



Here are a few examples of drugs known as angiotensin II receptor blocker:
A.    Valsartan (generic name)
Trade name in Indonesia
Diovan ® from Novartis

Indication: Treatment of hypertension, heart failure and post myocardial infarction

Contraindications
Pregnancy and lactation, severe liver damage, hypersensitivity to valsartan or its constituent components.

Dosage form, dosage, and the rules of use.
Diovan dosage forms of tablets 40 mg, 80 mg, 160 mg and 320 mg. 
1.      The initial dose for heart failure is 40 mg 2x a day, and the maximum dose of 320 mg / day.
2.      The initial dose for heart failure is 40 mg 2x a day and a maximum dose of 320 mg / day
3.      The dose for post-myocardial infarction, the initial dose of 20 mg 2x a day.

Side effects
Drugs can cause unwanted effects and adverse side effects, although not all of this happen. If there are side effects that occurred then it should immediately consult a medical. Here are some side effects that may occur in the use of valsartan as an antihypertensive:

Dizziness (7%), fatigue (19%), fatigue (3%), headache, vertigo (1%), diarrhea (5%), abdominal pain (2%), nausea (1%), neutropenia (2% ), hyperkalemia (2%), cough and upper respiratory tract infection (1%).

Special Risks
  1.  In pregnant women: dangerous on the second and third trimester and may cause fetal death.
  2. In renal failure this drug should be used carefully, renal function and potassium concentrations should be monitored especially for use in elderly patients. And also need a dose adjustment.
  3. In hepatic disorders secar this drug should be used carefully because it can enhance the effect of valsartan. This is because the elimination of time, so the use of liver disorders should be done on dose adjustment.

 B.     Irbesartan (generic name)
Trade name in Indonesia
Aprovel ® from Sanofi Aventif, Irentensa ® of Fahrenheit

Indication
Essential hypertension (hypertension of unknown origin)

Contraindications
Pregnancy and lactation, hypersensitivity to irbesartan or its constituent components

Dosage form, dosage, and the rules of use
Dosage forms of tablets aprovel ® is 150 mg and 300 mg while the iretensi ® 150 mg tablets
  1. Initial and maintenance dose for hypertension 150 once a day, can be increased to 300 mg or plus other classes of antihypertensive drugs
  2. The initial dose for renal impairment in hemodialysis 75 mg


Side effects
They can cause undesirable effects and adverse side effects, although not all of this happen. If there are side effects that occurred then it should immediately see a doctor. Here are some side effects that may occur in the use of irbesartan as an antihypertensive:

Hiperkalmia (19%), hypotension (5%), fatigue (4%), fatigue 10%), diarrhea (3%), upper respiratory tract infections (9%), cough (2.8%).

Special Risks:
  1. In pregnant women: berbahay on the second and third trimester and may cause fetal death.
  2. In renal failure this drug should be used carefully, renal function and potassium concentrations should be monitored especially for use in elderly patients. And also need a dose adjustment.
  3. In the liver disorder medication should be used cautiously because it may enhance the effects of irbesartan. This is because of elimination in a long time, so the use of the kelaianan hepatic dose adjustment should be done.

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