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Models, concepts and theories of nursing

Written By SALWA store on Tuesday, May 29, 2012 | 8:57 AM

The concept is a belief that complex objects to an object, an event or phenomenon based on experiences and perceptions of one's views or beliefs of the idea. A collection of some of the concepts within a framework that can be understood Formatting a model or conceptual framework. The concept can be analogous to the bricks to build a house where the house is described as the conceptual framework. 
The theory is the relationship of some of the concepts or the concept or definition of a framework that provides a systematic view of the symptoms and phenomena in order to describe, predict and or control of a phenomenon. 

The existence of the practice goals to be achieved in providing services to the needs of all patients as well as the knowledge and skills needed in this case the goal of becoming a nurse in developing background incidence of various models in which nursing concepts of the basic components of nursing practice models such as the existence and value keyuakinan underlying the model. 

NURSING THEORY 
Nursing theory is defined by Stevens (1984) is an attempt to describe and explain the various phenomena in nursing. Nursing theory nursing role in differentiating the other disciplines and aims to describe, explain, predict and control the outcome of care or nursing services are performed. 

CHARACTERISTICS OF THE THEORY OF NURSING 
1. Nursing theory and is defined as identifying the specific relationship of nursing concepts such as the relationship between human concepts, the concept of ill-health, nursing and environmental 
2. Nursing theory of scientific, nursing theory that is used with a rational reason or a clear and developed using a logical way of thinking 
3. Nursing theory is both simple and general, that nursing theory can be used to issue simple or complex health problems according to the situation of nursing practice 
4. Nursing theory plays a role in enriching the body of knoeledge nursing through research 
5. Nursing theory to guide and contribute to improving the quality of nursing practice. 

PURPOSE OF NURSING THEORY 
1. The existence of nursing theory is expected to give reasons-reasons of the activities encountered in nursing services, either form of action or form of nursing practice models so that various issues can be resolved 
2. The existence of the theory of the members of the patient's nursing helps nurses to understand the range of knowledge in the provision of nursing care and can provide the basis for resolving various problems of nursing. 
3. The existence of nursing theory help in problem-solving process keperawtan circuitry provides clear direction for the purpose of making any kind of action keperawtan and action can be taken into consideration. 
4. The existence of nursing theory also provided the basis of the assumptions and philosophy, knowledge and understanding keperawtan in keperawtan action can continue to grow and evolve. 

MODEL CONCEPTS and THEORY OF NURSING 
1. JEAN Waston 
Jeans Waston in understanding the concept of nursing theory known to human knowledge and human caring. Waston pandangtan benchmark is based on the elements of the theory of humanity. Keperawtan action refers directly to the understanding between the health-illness and human behavior, increased attention to nursing and health cure and prevent disease. 

This theory views Jeans Waston understand that humans have four branches of the human needs that relate slaing include: 
• The need Biphysikal, which includes food and fluid needs, elimination needs, the need for ventilation 
• The need psikofisikal, which covers the needs of sexual activity and rest requirements 
• The need for intra-personal, interpersonal, including self-actualization needs. 

Based on these four requirements, jeans Waston understand that human beings are perfect with a variety of diverse differences, so that in an effort to achieve human health should be in a prosperous state of physical, mental and spiritual well-being because it is the harmony between mind, body and soul so as to achieve The state should keperawtan role in improving health status, prevent disease, treat and cure various diseases and health focus on health promotion and disease prevention. 

2. Imogene King 
King understood the model concept and theory keperwatan interactions in the model concept. In reaching the interaction, the King expressed his concept of a system that includes interpersonal and social system that slaing connecting with others. 

According to the King's personal system is an open system where in it there is a perception, a pattern of growth and development, body image, space and time from individuals and lingkunganm, then the interpersonal relationship is a relationship between nurse and patient in establishing the social system in accordance with the existing situation. Through the system daasr the King saw man is the reactive individuals react to situations, people and objects. Human beings are oriented as to time can not be separated from the past and present which may affect the future as social beings, humans will live together with others who will interact with other circuitry. 
Based on this, the humans have three basic needs are for health information, the need for disease prevention and the need to supply when ill. 
Based on these images, can be explained that the concept of human relations according to the king made up of components 
1. Action 
Is the beginning of the relationship of two individuals to behave, to understand or recognize the conditions that exist in nursing with nurse described the relationship and because the lien for the expected goals 
2. Reaction 
Is a form of action arising from the action and the response of individual 
3. Interaction 
Is a form of cooperation for mutual influence between the nurse and since lien embodied in the communication 
4. Transaction 
Is a condition in which the nurse dank place a lien in the approval of the plan of nursing actions to be performed. 

3. Hildegard Peplau 
Model concepts and nursing theory described by Peplau describes the ability to understand ourselves and others who use the basic human relationships that include interpersonal process, the nurse-client and anxiety problems that occur due to illness. 
Interpersonal process between nurse circuitry is the client has four stages, namely: 
1. Orientation Phase 
Where nurses dank lien contract to build trust and a process of data collection 
2. Phase Identification 
The nurse's role here is already acting as fasilisator that facilitate client expression of feelings and conduct of nursing care 
3. Exploration Phase 
Nurses have helped clients in providing a picture of the client 
4. Resolution Phase 
The nurse tried to gradually to the client to free themselves from dependence on health and use its ability to be able to run on its own. 

Peplau theory and the idea was developed to provide a form of nursing practice psikiari. Nursing research about anxiety, empti, instruments and instruments for evaluating the behavior of a verbal response is generated from the conceptual model of Peplau. 

4. DOROTHY JOHNSON 
Model concepts and nursing theory by Johson is a system approach in which the behavior of individuals is seen as a system of behavior that has always wanted to achieve balance and stability. 
As a system, in which there are sub-system components that make up the system, including: 
1. Ingestif 
That is the source to maintain the integrity and achieve the recognition of pleasure in the achievement of environmental 
2. Achievement 
Is the achievement level through the creative skills 
3. Aggressive 
Mechanism is a form of self defense or protection from various threats that exist in the environment. 
4. Elimination 
Is a form of settlement of everything from garbage or items that are not biologically useful 
5. Sexual 
Used in the fulfillment of mutual love and be loved 
6. Combination 
Is a form of plant needs to maintain an environment conducive to the adjustment in social life. 
7. Dependence 
Forming part of the system behavior in getting help, peace, security and trust. 
Based on the above subsystem it will form a system of individual behavior, so that Johnson has a visibility of nursing in addressing these issues should be able to function as a regulator in order to develop the system behavior. 

5. MARTHA E. ROGERS 
Model concepts and theories of nursing by Martha E. Rogers is known by the name of the concept of man as a unit. Rogers assumes that man is a unified whole, which has properties and different characters. In the process of the dynamis of human life, human beings are always interacting with the environment of mutual influence and be influenced in the process of human life and each individual will differ from one another dneganyang and humans were created with different characteristics. 

Assumptions are based on naturally growing kekutan the wholeness of man and the environment, then the system as a whole yag ketersidiaan intact as well as the process of human life based on the concept of integrity homedinamik yag, resonance and helicy. 
a. Integrity 
Means the individual as a single unit circuitry environment are inseparable and mutually influence one another 
b. Resonance 
Life processes take place between individuals circuitry dnegna rhythmic environments with varying grekuensi 
c. Helicy 
Is the process of interaction between man and environment circuitry changes will occur slowly and progresses rapidly. 

6. Faye Abdellah 
Nursing theory developed by Abdellah which includes the provision of nursing care for all people to meet the physical, emotional, social and spiritual well clients and families. When using this approach, nurses require knowledge and skills in interpersonal relationships, psychology, human growth and perkembgangan, communications and sociology, as well as knowledge of basic sciences and certain nursing skills. The nurse is giving way in solving problems and decision makers. Nurses to formulate an idea of ​​the individual client's needs that may occur in the following areas 
1. Comfort, hygiene and safety 
2. Balance physiology 
3. Psychological factors and social 
4. And community factors 





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